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The most common noninvasive lesion of the breast is ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). Only a fraction of DCIS lesions will progress to invasive breast tumors, but it is not currently possible to predict which ones. Therefore, although surveillance may be recommended for early stage lesions, treatment of DCIS is typically aggressive, including options like mastectomy, lumpectomy and radiation, all of which have serious systemic side effects. Some patients also undergo endocrine therapy, which can have life-threatening side effects including stroke, blood clots, bone loss and elevated risks of certain cancers. There is an urgent clinical need for minimally invasive therapies that can be selectively targeted to prevent progression of premalignant breast lesions without producing systemic toxicity.
Lab Anim. (NY) 43, 73 (2014).
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