By combining cell therapy techniques with tissue engineering—two approaches that have produced mixed results on their own—researchers are attempting to effect myocardial repair after a heart attack, as well as interrupt the cellular cascade that leads from myocardial infarction (MI) to eventual heart failure. Each approach has its strengths and drawbacks, researchers reported at the 2nd International Conference on Cell Therapy for Cardiovascular Diseases. Cell therapy has been shown to promote neovascularization and myocardial regeneration, but results are inconsistent and cell viability posttransplant is often low. Engineered tissue reproduces some functional characteristics of native tissue, but has limited efficacy and has not thus far outperformed noncell-based implants.J. Interv. Cardiol. 16, 304-306 (2006).